Iraq war and occupationThe US and Britain launch bombing raids on Iraq to try to disable Iraq's air defense network. The raids gain little international support. (BBC)
Anti-terrorism and homeland securityThis is virtually the last time terrorism is mentioned by any administration official until September 11. Bush will abandon almost every aggressive anti-terrorism initiative left to him by the Clinton administration. On May 8, with great fanfare, Bush will announce the creation of a new Office of National Preparedness for terrorism at the Federal Emergency Management Agency, and almost immediately slash its budget by $200 million. On January 26, Bush received a document from the FBI proving that the attack on the USS Cole was the work of al-Qaeda terrorists; Bush chose to do nothing in response. As detailed above, the Hart-Rudman report on terrorism urged the administration to begin taking steps to protect the nation from a terrorist attack; the administration adopted none of the suggestions in the report until after the 9/11 attacks. Bush did promise to create a government-wide review of anti-terrorism policies, to be chaired by Vice President Cheney; the review panel never meets. Bush also promises to periodically chair a meeting of the National Security Council to discuss the threat of terrorism; such a meeting never takes place. US military commanders repeatedly request funding to meet the domestic terror threat, and try to redirect $600 million from Bush's pet missile defense project. Bush responded by promising a presidential veto of any such funding -- on September 9. (New York Times/Eric Alterman and Mark Green)
Islamist terrorismA former CIA anti-terror expert later claims that an allied intelligence agency sees "two of Osama's sisters apparently taking cash to an airport in Abu Dhabi [United Arab Emirates], where they are suspected of handing it to a member of bin Laden's al-Qaeda organization." This is cited as one of many incidents showing the connections between Osama bin Laden and the rest of his family. (CCR)
Bush's energy policiesEnergy Secretary Spencer Abraham claims that he is "too busy" to schedule a single meeting with the representatives; Energy Department documents later show that Abraham had the time to meet with 109 energy industry executives, trade association leaders, and industry lobbyists while the plan was being drafted. He had the time to meet with executives from, among others, the American Coal Company, ExxonMobil, BP/Amoco, Shell, ChevronTexaco, and half a dozen nuclear power companies. Dick Cheney, the head of the energy task force, passes the environmental group representatives off to task force director Andrew Lundquist. The single meeting lasts less than an hour and was mostly made up of introductions. No policy specifics are mentioned. Cheney will refuse to meet with representatives of any environmental concern until June 5, six weeks after the task force issues its final report. Though Cheney will claim that his task force has met with a wide range of environmental as well as energy industry and corporate representatives, he refuses to release the names of the people or the firms he has met with, turning down requests from congressional Democrats and even the General Accounting Office.
Bush's energy policiesThe list looks like a roster of contributors to the Bush campaign; during the 2000 campaign, energy industries gave nine times the amount of contributions to Bush than to Gore, and the oil and gas industries gave 14 times the amount to Bush than they contributed to Gore. The roster includes the Nuclear Energy Institute (19 visits, $437,404 in Bush campaign contributions), the Edison Electric Institute (14 visits, $598,169), the National Mining Association (9 visits, $575,496), the American Gas Association (8 visits, $480,478), the Southern Company (7 visits, $1,626,507), and the Exelon Corporation (6 visits, $910,886). But the biggest industry representation is secured by Enron, who visited the task force six times and met with Cheney privately five times, and donated $1.1 million to the campaign and another $300,000 to the inauguration festivities. At least 17 of the policy recommendations from the task force will directly benefit Enron. (Eric Alterman and Mark Green)
Bush's energy policiesthe Sierra Club sent Cheney a letter saying that if they thought they had incorporated 11 of the 12 planks, then they must have had Arthur Andersen (Enron's accounting firm) doing their math. Carl Pope, director of the Sierra Club, describes the meeting as "bizarre." "We sat there," Pope recalls, "and said, 'We don't think that your plan does anything that our plan does. You have the same subject areas. You have a section called "renewables," but there's nothing in it.' And they said, 'Well, this isn't really our plan, this is a work in progress. We're going to change it.' Which they never did of course." (The Sierra Club's 12 environmental planks are available in .PDF format here.) (Salon, Eric Alterman and Mark Green)
Oil profiteering and the "oiligarchy"The new administration withdraws its support for efforts by the international Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) to crack down on offshore tax havens such as those used by Enron, Halliburton, Harken Oil, and other US corporations. (Eric Alterman and Mark Green)
Bush familyTo fund Ignite!, Bush raises $23 million from US investors, including his parents, as well as businessmen from Taiwan, Japan, Kuwait, the British Virgin Islands and the United Arab Emirates, according to documents filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission. In 2003, Ignite! will enter into a partnership with a Mexican company, Grupo Carso Telecom. The partnership enables Ignite! to lay off half of its 70 employees and outsource their jobs to Mexico. "That's turned out to be great," says Ignite! president Ken Leonard. Bush pays himself a salary of $180,000 a year plus bonuses. Kevin Phillips, historian and author of the book American Dynasty: Aristocracy, Fortune and the Politics of Deceit in the House of Bush, sees Neil Bush as a man who has made a career of cashing in on his famous name. "He's incorrigible," Phillips says. "He seems to be crawling through the underbelly of crony capitalism." Bush denies that contention. "I have never used my family name to 'cash-in,'" Bush will write. "Unfortunately, such ridiculous charges come with the territory of coming from a famous and public family." As for Ignite!'s effect on students, the results are not promising. Bush insists that Ignite!'s learning software is working well: "Teachers and students have given anecdotal feedback that confirms the powerful impact our program is having on student achievement, student focus and attitudes, and teacher success in reaching all of their students," he writes. But at one pilot school, reviews were less laudatory. "The kids felt pretty strongly that what this was about was lowering the bar," says a writer who participated in the program. "There was a lot of rhyming and games," he says. "It reminded me of what my son uses -- but he's in kindergarten." When Bush spoke at the school, several students began arguing with him. "He was very surprised," the writer recalls. "You had to see the look on his face when one young woman got up and said she liked calculus. He said it was useless. This is the branch of mathematics that makes space travel possible, and he said it was useless." (Austin Chronicle, Washington Post)
Islamist terrorismAll are ultimately convicted. Testimony reveals that two al-Qaeda operatives had received pilot training in Texas and Oklahoma and another had been asked to take lessons. One bin Laden aide becomes a government witness and gives the FBI detailed information about a pilot training scheme. This new information does not lead to any new FBI investigations into the matter. (CCR)
Bush's foreign policiessaying, "Sanctions are fine. But what we really want to discuss is going after Saddam." He continues, "Imagine what the region would look like without Saddam and with a regime that's aligned with US interests. It would change everything in the region and beyond it. It would demonstrate what US policy is all about." The discussion turns to speculations about a post-Hussein Iraq, and touches briefly on exactly how to get rid of the Iraqi dictator -- a military invasion is never specifically mentioned, though the council members do discuss how to rebuild the 1991 Persian Gulf War coalition. The assumption, made most strongly by Rumsfeld, that Iraq possesses weapons of mass destruction is presented as a given, with no discussion or questioning. Treasury Secretary Paul O'Neill realizes even more clearly, as he did during the January 31 NSC meeting, that toppling Hussein as a first step towards "dissuading" other countries from opposing the US is already a matter of policy. "There was never any rigorous talk about this sweeping idea that seemed to be driving all the specific actions," he later says, echoing the recollections of several other participants in the meetings. "From the start, we were building the case against Hussein and looking at how we could take him out and change Iraq into a new country. And if we did that, it would solve everything. It was all about finding a way to do it. That was the tone of it. The President saying, 'Fine. Go find me a way to do this.'" (Ron Suskind)
Bush's energy policiesThe memo directs the NSC staff to cooperate fully with Cheney's task force as it considered the "melding" of two seemingly unrelated areas of policy: "the review of operational policies towards rogue states," such as Iraq, and "actions regarding the capture of new and existing oil and gas fields." The memo makes it obvious that Cheney's task force intends on using the Bush administration's intended policy of regime change to facilitate the capture and incorporation of Iraq's oil fields into US oil-corporation structures. Mark Medish, who served as senior director for Russian, Ukrainian, and Eurasian affairs at the NSC during the Clinton Administration, says that while "[p]eople think Cheney's Energy Task Force has been secretive about domestic issues...if this little group was discussing geostrategic plans for oil, it puts the issue of war in the context of the captains of the oil industry sitting down with Cheney and laying grand, global plans." (The New Yorker)
Bush's economic policiesAt a February 5 White House PR event featuring taxpayers from different tax brackets, Bush asserts again that "the bottom end of the economic ladder receives the biggest percentage cut," another lie. An earlier analysis by the nonpartisan Citizens for Tax Justice showed that 43% of Bush's tax cuts go directly to the wealthiest 1% of Americans; a new study shows that Bush's tax cuts are even more heavily skewed in favor of the wealthy, with the top 1% receiving 45% of the tax cuts; the top 5% would receive 53%; the top 20% (those with incomes of $72,000 and above) would receive almost 72% of his tax cuts. On the other hand, the bottom 20% (with incomes below $15,000) would receive a princely 0.8%, and the bottom 40% (those earning $27,000 and under) would share 4.3% among themselves. (Bush himself will receive almost $100,000 a year in tax relief under his plan, double that of the average 1% taxpayer.) The Center on Budget and Policy Priorities uses a different model and comes up with similar numbers. To answer the criticism of these numbers, showing that the Bush model funnels billions of dollars straight to the wealthiest of Americans while shifting the bulk of the tax burden downwards, the Bush administration comes up with two counterattacks, both riddled with falsehoods. One is based on the fact that low wage-earners usually pay little in income taxes anyway -- these struggling taxpayers pay the bulk of their taxes in payroll taxes, something entirely different. The family earning $26,000 touted by Bush as receiving "100% tax relief," in other words paying no income taxes whatsoever, only paid an average of $20 in income tax anyway. The second counterattack was heralded by a Washington Post headline, "Richest 1% Will Get 22% of Cut, Bush Says." That figure of 22% was produced by using projected figures for taxes from 2005, not 2001-2004, and worse, excludes the entirety of Bush's repeal of the estate tax, which benefits the wealthiest in its entirety. The figure also excludes 2006 projections, which include more tax cuts for the wealthy. In sum, the Bush defense of his tax proposals are blatant and transparent lies. (David Corn)
Iraq war and occupationSecretary of State Colin Powell tells the US House of Representatives that no matter what Saddam Hussein does, the administration will follow a "regime change" policy against the Iraqi government. It is worth noting that George Bush came out strongly against any "regime change" policies during the 2000 presidential campaign. (CCR)
Conservative media slantquestioners challenge the media's "free ride" policy towards George W. Bush's military record as opposed to its intensive scrutiny of former president Bill Clinton's own attempts to avoid military service. "Let me give you some statistics," says Paul Begala. "I worked for Bill Clinton in 1992 and...in anticipation of this very question, I looked this up on Nexis. There were 13,641 stories about Bill Clinton 'dodging the draft'...and there were 49 stories about Bush and the National Guard." Journalist Howard Fineman admits that Bush received a "gentle ride" during the campaign from the press, and drew loud protests from the crowd when he suggested that the press wasn't as aggressive with regard to Bush because the scandals of the Clinton years had "exhausted" the press and the public. "I didn't realize how angry people still are," comments one of the panelists afterwards. (UAW)
Islamist terrorism"since 1998 bin Laden has declared that all US citizens are legitimate targets," he says, adding that bin Laden "is capable of planning multiple attacks with little or no warning."
"Culture Wars"Bush will name John Walters as his new "drug czar." Walters, a product of the rightist Heritage Foundation and protege of former Education Secretary (and closet gambling addict) William Bennett, is notorious for his unforgiving take on drug addiction, characterizing drug use as a sin before God, supporting the huge disparity in the penalties for crack and powdered cocaine (most Americans charged for crack are black, where most charged with powdered cocaine are white), and slashing billions from rehabilitation programs. Even his predecessor, General Barry McCaffrey, considers Walters an ideological extremist, and says that Walters's belief that "there is too much treatment capacity in the United States" is "shocking." Walters will play a major role in enfolding the "war on drugs" into the "war on terror," a process that has meant huge increases in expenditures for hardware and surveillance, but drastic decreases in spending for education, prevention, and treatment. In light of his handling of the "war on drugs," it is interesting to note that Walters is a former president of the New Citizenship Project, a Scaife-funded entity that begat the Project for the New American Century, the neoconservative think tank whose ideological fanaticism drives the Bush foreign policy towards war with Iraq. (Mark Crispin Miller)
Prewar intelligence on IraqThe CIA reports that it has no evidence of any Iraqi terrorist operations against the US in at least 10 years. (CCR)
US involvement in Latin Americatells an audience on Radio Tropicale that there are three ways to get rid of democratically elected Haitian president Jean-Bertrand Aristide: call early elections and vote him out, charge him with corruption and let the courts imprison him, or assassinate him. With the blessing and assistance of the Bush administration, IRI will step up its campaign to get rid of Aristide. IRI will train and fund anti-Aristide candidates, help unite them into a single anti-Aristide bloc, and, according to a former US ambassador to Haiti, work to block all internationally-proposed power-sharing agreements in order to heighten Haiti's political crisis and encourage a coup against Aristide. The IRI also will help in the Bush administration's failed attempt to precipitate a coup against Venezuela's Hugo Chavez. Lucas himself is Haiti's equivalent of Iraq's Ahmad Chalabi -- a charismatic, wealthy exile with deep and murky ties to right-wing organizations in America. Lucas (Salon)
Conservative smear campaigns"[Clinton] has done it in his personal ways. He has this elegant facility to talk about major social issues. And it is good. Let me tell you, he is right. And then in his personal life, he violates all the rules. Now, you -- as somebody said, we need a psychiatrist for this." (CNN/Mark Crispin Miller)
Islamist terrorismBush has been in office a matter of days, when secret pipeline negotiations with the Taliban have reopened. The new administration has already twice threatened the Taliban that the US would hold the Taliban responsible for any al-Qaeda attack. But, fearful of ending those negotiations, the US does not retaliate against either the Taliban or known bin Laden bases in Afghanistan in the manner Clinton did in 1998. (CCR)
US militaryNine are killed in the collision, including four high school students. The next day Admiral Thomas Fargo, commander of the US Pacific Fleet, formally apologizes to the Japanese government and to the families of those killed in the collision. Fargo admits that the fault lay completely with the submarine, and says that the sub was surfacing after what is called an "emergency main ballast blow" when its stern collided with the fishing vessel. 16 civilians were on board, but initially the Navy fails to identify them, saying only that business leaders, lawmakers, and other notable civilians are routinely allowed on board naval vessels as part of the Navy's community relations program.
Bush's economic policiesIt redefines "security" as not only the defense of the US and its borders, but "the advancement of United States interests around the globe. National security also depends on America's opportunity to prosper in the world economy." The directive removes many senior advisors and staff from the flow of information, and centralizes almost all security information directly to Bush through national security advisor Condoleezza Rice, a former Chevron executive whose only experience in national security is a brief stint as a Russian affairs advisor under the elder Bush. (OpEd News, National Security Presidential Directive 1)
Islamist terrorismThe National Security Agency breaks al-Qaeda's encrypted communications. Now the agency has access to a wealth of information about the terrorist organization -- if it will bother to translate the intercepts. (From the Wilderness)
Conservative hate speech and intoleranceDerbyshire, who claims to be writing tongue in cheek, writes, "I hate Chelsea because she is a Clinton. Not just genetically a Clinton, but in spirit and habit and manner. ...Chelsea is a Clinton. She bears the taint; and though not prosecutable in law, in custom and nature the taint cannot be ignored. All the great despotisms of the past -- I'm not arguing for despotism as a principle, but they sure knew how to deal with potential trouble -- recognized that the families of objectionable citizens were a continuing threat. In Stalin's penal code it was a crime to be the wife or child of an 'enemy of the people.' The Nazis used the same principle, which they called Sippenhaft, 'clan liability.' In Imperial China, enemies of the state were punished 'to the ninth degree:' that is, everyone in the offender's own generation would be killed, and everyone related via four generations up, to the great-great-grandparents, and four generations down, to the great-great-grandchildren, would also be killed. (This sounds complicated, but in practice what usually happened was that a battalion of soldiers was sent to the offender's home town, where they killed everyone they could find, on the principle neca eos omnes, deus suos agnoscet — 'let God sort 'em out.') We don't, of course, institutionalize such principles in our society, and a good thing too. Our humanity and forbearance, however, has a cost. The cost is, that the vile genetic inheritance of Bill and Hillary Clinton may live on to plague us in the future. It isn't over, folks." I myself excoriated Derbyshire for his column with a long, harsh e-mail; Derbyshire responded by defending the entire column as a "joke" and counter-attacked by accusing me of being unable to read. To use Rush Limbaugh's own words, it is obvious that fanatical right-wingers like Derbyshire (and Limbaugh) cannot tell the "huge difference between dissent and hate." (National Review)
Iraq war and occupationOne plan is advanced by Secretary of State Colin Powell, described by one participant, Falah Aljibury, as "an invasion disguised as a coup." The plan was for a quick and lethal invasion, and the subsequent insertion of an Iraqi war hero to be selected later as the new leader of the Iraqi government. Within 90 days of the invasion and coup d'etat, the US-chosen successor would be confirmed by "democratic" elections. Investigative journalist Greg Palast writes, "After the [invasion and occupation of Iraq] turned ugly, the Washington Post's Bob Woodward, fed with strategic leaks, told us the Secretary of State secretly opposed the invasion. That was Powell's self-serving fairy tale. Powell didn't oppose the invasion, he opposed occupation." The Walnut Creek meeting takes place in the home of Iraqi exile Aljibury, who served as the back-channel contact between the US and Hussein during the Reagan and Bush administrations. Aljibury is currently employed to provide information about Hussein's oil industry, working for Bank of America, Goldman Sachs and Hess Energy Trading. Aljibury actually interviews several former Iraqi generals for what becomes known as the "Three-Day Plan" to oust Hussein and replace him with a puppet; one of their favorite candidates is General Nizar Khazraji, Hussein's former army chief, who had been exiled and currently is under arrest in Denmark for war crimes. (Khazraji disappears two days before the US invasion of March 2003, and his current whereabouts are unknown.) Aljibury says that the petrochemical industry is behind the plans for a coup, as long as oil supplies remained uninterrupted. "Bring him in right away and say that Iraq is being liberated -- and everybody stay in office...everything as is," Aljibury describes the idea. His reason for confirming and detailing the plan is simple: he believes that, if adopted, the plan would have worked far better than the one later implemented.
Iraq war and occupationConservative talk show host Bill O'Reilly dismisses Saddam Hussein as a threat to the United States: "You know, I don't take Saddam Hussein all that seriously anymore as far as a world threat. Maybe I'm wrong and naive here. Should we be very frightened of this guy?" (FAIR)
Iraq war and occupationenforcing the UN no-fly zones in the largest air strikes within Iraq in two years. While the White House is informed of the strikes by a general from the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Defense Secretary Donald Rumsfeld feels he hasn't been given enough information about the strikes quickly enough, and Rumsfeld is livid. Rumsfeld's information comes to him, by established law and protocol, through the chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, General Hugh Shelton. It could be hours before Rumsfeld learns of such events. Snarling, "I'm the secretary of defense. I'm in the chain of command," Rumsfeld decides to upend the entire system and ensure that he, not Shelton, will have the president's ear on such matters. Rumsfeld hounds Shelton for information about the reporting of the air strikes: who had selected those targets and why, who had briefed, who knew, and most importantly, why wasn't Rumsfeld consulted? CNN had reported air strikes in Baghdad, though the actual bases struck were not in the city itself; it looked for a moment if the US had just declared unilateral war on Iraq. Rumsfeld feels misled and ignored, and refuses to stand for it. The air strikes spur Rumsfeld to re-institute his system of sending short notes directly to people throughout the Pentagon, almost all marked for immediate reply. He calls the notes "snowflakes." One of their attractions for Rumsfeld is that, while everyone knows who they are from, none are signed, and therefore are deniable if any are leaked to the press. Rumsfeld's senior administrative assistant, Rear Admiral J.J. Quinn, later says of the snowflakes, "It was a simple, efficient way for him to keep track of what he had asked for and what he wanted to get done. It was a way for him to get his arms around this big behemoth called the United States military." The snowflakes are a mixed blessing; as Shelton's right-hand man, Vice Admiral Scott Fry, observes, the military establishment needs a good shaking-up, others find the snowflakes irritating, obtrusive, and impossible to keep up with. The snowflakes are a prime example of Rumsfeld's micromanagement style -- and his insistence on being viewed as the top dog at Defense.
George W. BushGeorge W. Bush tells a Tennessee audience, "You teach a child to read and he or her will be able to pass a literacy test." (Molly Ivins and Lou Dubose)
Bush's energy policiesAlthough the administration has succeeded in keeping the details of these meetings away from the public, it is known that Cheney's energy task force made special concessions to help Enron's Dabhol plant in India, that Cheney attempted to help Enron collect a $64 million debt from India, that the National Security Council ran a "Dabhol Working Group" that acted as a intermediary between Enron and the Indian government, and that both Enron and Halliburton Oil, Cheney's former company, stands to gain tremendous profits from the proposed Caspian Sea pipeline. It is widely speculated that these three meetings between Cheney and Lay covered some or all of these areas. (Albion Monitor/AlterNet, From the Wilderness)
Bush's energy policies"For some eight months after the 2001 inauguration, two major Texas companies -- Halliburton, run by Cheney since 1995, and Enron, closely linked to the latest two generations of Bushes -- loomed especially large in capital calculations. Lobbyists expected the two firms' interests to both influence and signal administration policy. Focal points included fuller of US energy markets, repeal of the Public Utility Holding Company Act, commodization of both natural gas and electricity marketing, closer US-Russian oil collaboration, intensified commitment to US control of Iraqi and Caspian oil supplies, and large-scale privatization of support functions hitherto performed by the US military (ranging from energy procurement to war-zone logistics). There was an ambitious, even imperial, trade agenda aimed at empowering the World Trade Organization to regulate the global trade in energy and utility services. Within the Washington-based Coalition of Service Industries, Enron and Halliburton had been the driving US proponents, anxious to pry open foreign markets for US utility, pipeline, construction, and oil-field-service providers. ...At no time in recent memory had Washington faced an ethical conundrum over the influence generated by the recent corporate alliances and connections of both a president and a vice president." (Kevin Phillips)
9/11 attacksHe trains there until May, but doesn't do well and drops out before getting a pilot's license. His visa expires on May 22, but he doesn't attempt to renew it or get another by briefly leaving the country. He stays in Norman, making arrangements to change flight schools and frequently exercising in a gym. According to US investigators, would-be hijacker Ramzi bin al-Shibh said he met Moussaoui in Karachi, Pakistan in June 2001. Moussaoui moves to a flight school in Minnesota in August and is arrested by the FBI a short time later. (CCR)
Iraq war and occupation"I think we ought to declare [the containment policy] a success. We have kept him contained, kept him in his box." Powell adds that Hussein "is unable to project conventional power against his neighbors" and that "he threatens not the United States." Powell continues, in regard to his visit to Cairo and the Egyptian government, "We had a good discussion, the Foreign Minister and I and the President and I, had a good discussion about the nature of the sanctions -- the fact that the sanctions exist -- not for the purpose of hurting the Iraqi people, but for the purpose of keeping in check Saddam Hussein's ambitions toward developing weapons of mass destruction. We should constantly be reviewing our policies, constantly be looking at those sanctions to make sure that they are directed toward that purpose. That purpose is every bit as important now as it was ten years ago when we began it. And frankly they have worked. He has not developed any significant capability with respect to weapons of mass destruction. He is unable to project conventional power against his neighbors. So in effect, our policies have strengthened the security of the neighbors of Iraq...." (Center for American Progress, State Department/Memory Hole)
"My plan reduces the national debt, and fast. So fast, in fact, that economists worry that we're going to run out of debt to retire." -- George W. Bush, February 24, 2001
Conservative hate speech and intoleranceConservative commentator Ann Coulter insults women on Politically Correct: "I think [women] should be armed but should not [be allowed to] vote...women have no capacity to understand how money is earned. They have a lot of ideas on how to spend it....it's always more money on education, more money on child care, more money on day care." (Intervention Magazine)
Global warming and the environment"There's no question but that global warming is a real phenomenon that is occurring. And while scientists can't predict where the droughts will occur, where the flooding will occur precisely, or when, we know those things will occur." Whitman is obviously out of the loop, even though, as she tells a CNN audience, "George Bush was very clear during the course of the campaign that he believed in a multipollutant strategy, and that includes CO2," and in 1999, Karl Rove confirmed that Bush was committed to reducing carbon dioxide emissions. But, after his election, Bush has been backing sharply away from his modest pro-environmental positions during the campaign, cozying back up to oil and gas interests angered by his campaign promises to set mandatory reduction levels for four major pollutants -- sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxide, mercury, and carbon dioxide. Whitman will become increasingly estranged from the White House, and her ideas for reducing pollutants in the environment will be not only ignored by White House officials, but mocked.